Recent unbiased exome and whole-genome sequencing studies have identified ARID1B (originally BAF250b) as the most frequently mutated gene in human de novo neurodevelopmental disorders and a high confidence autism gene. ARID1B is a subunit of the multimeric SWI/SNF or Brg/Brahma-Associated Factor (BAF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. Studies of Arid1b+/- mice as well as other BAF subunit mutants have found defects in neural progenitor proliferation and activity-dependent neuronal dendritogenesis; however, to date, the molecular impact of ARID1B mutations on the human neural lineage has not been investigated. Remarkably, ARID1B is required for expression of HOX genes, including anterior HOX genes necessary for brain development. Despite the high homology with ARID1A and the fact that ARID1A is expressed at about 3-fold higher levels, it is unable to compensate for heterozygous loss of ARID1B. These changes in gene expression were paralleled by dosage-sensitive altered deposition of histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone H2A lysine-119 ubiquitination (H2AK119ub) indicating that an evolutionarily conserved pathway of HOX gene regulation underlies the neurodevelopmental defects accompanying ARID1B haploinsufficiency. Using FIRE-Cas9, we show that the unmutated ARID1B allele can be activated to near normal and potentially therapeutic levels.