Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented healthcare crisis. We aim to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting disease progression based on a large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study, with a total of 4,086 hospitalized COVID-19 patients enrolled from two hospitals in Wuhan, China between February 3rd and Apr 10th. Nomogram was developed based on a cohort of 3, 022 patients from one hospital, and externally validated in another cohort of 1,064 patients from the other hospital. The calibration was assessed by a calibration plot and the HL test to evaluate the goodness of fit, and the Area under the ROC Curve (AUROC) as a measure of discriminative ability.
Results: Six independent predictors, including age, dyspnea, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and cardiovascular disease, were finally identified for construction of the nomogram for predicting disease progression of COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. The AUROC was 0.877 and 0.817 for development cohort and validation cohort, respectively. The calibration plots AND Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed optimal agreement between nomogram prediction and actual observation. The decision curve analysis showed the performance of the nomograms were better than all univariable models, and had greater net benefit. Next, a predictive nomogram for disease severity on admission was formulated and the six independent factors used were similar to that of the nomogram for disease progression, which indicates that those factors play important roles in determining disease severity and the risk of disease progression.
Conclusion: In the current study, a nomogram was developed based on generally readily available variables at hospital admission to help predict disease progression of COVID-19.