Background: Hemoptysis after silicone breast prosthesis surgery has not been reported so far, and the mechanism is unclear.
Case presentation: A 25-year-old young woman presented hemoptysis after silicone breast prosthesis replacement surgery. CTA revealed diffuse interstitial, alveolar, and terminal bronchial exudate changes in absent of pulmonary embolism. Noninvasive ventilator assisted breathing, combined with atomized inhalation of budesonide 2ml every 8h and intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone 100mg every 12h. Chest CT improved significantly 3 days later, and discharged 10 days later.
Conclusions: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage might be the cause of hemoptysis after silicone breast augmentation, and glucocorticoid treatment is very effective. However, if pulmonary imaging suggested diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, BAL and lung biopsy should be performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis before treatment.