Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals [1-8], where time translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions [9,10], spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers [11-13], ultracold atoms [14,15], solid spin ensembles [16,17], and superconducting qubits [18-20]. Here, we report the observation of a distinct type of intrinsically non-equilibrium state of matter, a Floquet symmetry-protected topological phase, which is implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. Unlike the discrete time crystals reported in previous experiments, where spontaneous breaking of the discrete time translational symmetry occurs for local observables throughout the whole system, the Floquet symmetry-protected topological phase observed in our experiment breaks the time translational symmetry only at the boundaries and has trivial dynamics in the bulk. More concretely, we observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and sub-harmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit whose depth exceeds 240. We demonstrate that the sub-harmonic response is independent of whether the initial states are random product states or symmetry-protected topological states, and experimentally map out the phase boundary between the time crystalline and thermal phases. Our work paves the way to exploring novel non-equilibrium phases of matter emerging from the interplay between topology and localization as well as periodic driving, with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors .