To realize the scientific judgment of spontaneous fire risk in the coal mine, the spontaneous fire influence factors were analyzed from the three aspects of coal spontaneous combustion tendency, air leakage, and oxygen supply, heat storage and heat dissipation. And the basis for the evaluation of t spontaneous fire grade was constructed. Combination ordered weighted averaging (COWA) calculation was introduced to optimizes G1 subjective weighting, and a COWA modified G1 combined weighting cloud model was proposed to identify the spontaneous fire risk in the coal mine. Finally, the rationality of the model was verified with actual cases. The research results show that the spontaneous fire risk level in the Lingquan coal mine is relatively safe, which is consistent with the actual situation. And the spontaneous combustion tendency of coal is the leading factor affecting spontaneous fire risk.