Breakthrough infection is often observed for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and neutralizing antibody levels are associated with vaccine efficiency1. Recent studies revealed that not only anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies2 but also antibodies against the N-terminal domain (NTD) play important roles in positively3,4 or negatively4-8 controlling SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Here, we found that the Delta variant completely escaped from anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies, while increasing responsiveness to anti-NTD infectivity-enhancing antibodies. Cryo-EM analysis of the Delta spike revealed that epitopes for anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies are structurally divergent, whereas epitopes for enhancing antibodies are well conserved with wild-type spike protein. Although Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2-immune sera neutralized the original Delta variant, when major anti-RBD neutralizing antibody epitopes remaining in the Delta variant were disrupted, some BNT162b2-immune sera not only lost neutralizing activity but became infection-enhanced. The enhanced infectivity disappeared when the Delta NTD was substituted with the wild-type NTD. Sera of mice immunized by Delta spike, but not wild-type spike, consistently neutralized the Delta variant lacking anti-RBD antibody epitopes without enhancing infectivity. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 variants with similar mutations in the RBD have already emerged according to the GISAID database and their pseudoviruses were resistant to some BNT162b2-immune sera. These findings demonstrate that mutations in the NTD, as well as the RBD, play an important role in antibody escape by SARS-CoV-2. Development of effective vaccines against emerging variants will be necessary, not only to protect against infection, but also to prevent further mutation of SARS-CoV-2.