The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa injects effector proteins into neighbouring competitors and host cells, providing a fitness advantage that allows this opportunistic nosocomial pathogen to persist and prevail during the onset of infections. However, despite the high clinical relevance of P. aeruginosa, the identity and mode of action of most P. aeruginosa T6SS-dependent effectors remain to be discovered. Here, we report the molecular mechanism of Tse5-CT, which is the toxic auto-proteolytic product of the P. aeruginosa T6SS exported effector Tse5. Our results demonstrate Tse5-CT is a pore-forming toxin that can transport ions across the membrane, causing membrane depolarisation and bacterial death. The membrane potential regulates a wide range of essential cellular functions, and therefore membrane depolarisation is an efficient strategy to compete with other microorganisms in polymicrobial environments.