Background: In recent years, the incidence rate of Thyroid carcinoma(TC) has been increasing worldwide. Thus, research on factors of TC carcinogenesis may promote TC prevention and decrease the incidence rate. There are several studies targeting the correlation between gut microbiota and thyroid disease. Carcinogenesis of several malignancies is influenced by microbiota. However, thyroid microbiome of TC has not been revealed. This study investigated thyroid microbiota in different TC microhabitats.
Methods: We performed 16s rRNA gene sequencing using tumor tissues and matched peritumor tissues from 30 patients with TC to characterize thyroid microbiota.
Results: The richness and diversity of thyroid microbiota were lower in TC tumor samples than in matched peritumor tissues. At the genus level, the core microbiota of thyroid included Sphingomonas, Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Microvirgula, and Soonwooa. The abundance of Sphingomonas and Aeromonas was significantly increased in tumor tissues, while the abundance of Comamonas, Acinetobacter, and Peptostreptococcus was significantly enhanced in peritumor tissues. The combination of Comamonas and Sphingomonas could discriminate tumor samples from peritumor samples with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.981 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.949-1.000). The abundance of Sphingomonas was significantly higher in N1 stage than in N0 stage. Sphingomonas could distinguish between N0 and N1 stage with an AUC of 0.964 (95% CI: 0.907-1.000).
Conclusions: The microbial diversity and composition were significantly different between peritumor and tumor microhabitats from patients with TC, which may eventually affect TC carcinogenesis and progression. The combination of Comamonas and Sphingomonas could serve as a powerful biomarker for discrimination between tumor and peritumor tissues. Furthermore, the higher abundance of Sphingomonas was correlated with lymph node metastasis, indicating that it may play a role in promoting TC progression.