Pyrimidine catabolism is implicated in hepatic steatosis. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPYD) is an enzyme responsible for uracil and thymine catabolism, and DPYD human genetic variability affects clinically observed toxicity following 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) administration. In an in vitro model of diet-induced steatosis, the pharmacologic inhibition of DPYD resulted in protection from lipid accumulation. Additionally, a gain-of-function mutation of DPYD, created through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) engineering, led to an increased lipid burden, which was associated with altered mitochondrial functionality in a hepatocarcionma cell line. The studies presented herein describe a novel role for DPYD in hepatocyte metabolic regulation as a modulator of hepatic steatosis.