The rapid influx of people growing creates a clean-water challenge, that is already being confronted in the world (Chang et al. 2016; Pradhan et al. 2020). The water pollution threat could be caused by industry such as the release of dyes into the environment in the form of wastewater (Salam et al. 2017; Yeamin et al. 2021). The occurrence of dyes, even at low concentrations, in water adversely affects human health and is toxic to the life of microorganisms and their biological systems (Zheng et al. 2019). Various dyes resist biodegradation due to their aromatic structure. Among the dyes, Orange G (OG) is generally used in textile tanneries. OG dye is one of the azo dyes and could be cause irritation to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory organs and cancer (Imgharn et al. 2021). Therefore, the elimination of dyes from contaminated water is necessary before their release into the natural environment. For this purpose, several techniques have been developed, such as chemical precipitation (Singh and Chauhan 2009), photodegradation processes (Miklos et al. 2018; Naciri et al. 2021), coagulation-flocculation (El-Gaayda et al. 2021), ion exchange and adsorption processes (Grzegorzek et al. 2020; Laabd et al. 2021; Hsini et al. 2021b). The superiority of adsorption separating pollutants owing to the flexibility in design and system, and good output performance in several cases, the capability to reuse the adsorbent in several times, and the low cost of process (Hsini et al. 2021a; Laabd et al. 2021) .
A large collection of biosorbents or biomaterials from natural sources like almond shells, walnut shells, bagasse sugarcane, sawdust, and biomass made up of living, or dead microorganisms, and biopolymers were employed as adsorbents to adsorb contaminants from aqueous solutions, owing of their low cost, availability and their adsorption capacity to treat wastewater (Hsini et al. 2020). However, all these materials provide a simple uptake of contaminants. In order to anhance the adsorption performance of biomaterials, conducting polymers have been increasingly used for their adsorption capability and the polyaniline (PANI) is the most efficient among them (Laabd et al. 2022). Because of its porous structure, regenerability and ion exchange capacity, as well as a large number of amine/imine groups.
Polysaccharide alginate is commonly obtained from brown seaweed. As a biopolymer, sodium alginate is largely applied in pharmaceuticals, cosmetic and hygienic products, textiles, food additives and dyes (Rocher et al. 2008). This polymer has very long-chain molecules with active carboxylic groups that can be straightened along with each other in a way to be in line with the capability to create a leaf material. One of the tunable qualities of alginate is the capacity to build a hydrogel (Dąbrowski et al. 2005; Javanbakht and Shafiei 2020). An aqueous alginate solution is easily crystallized into a hydrogel, plus double metal cations such as Ca2+.
The main purpose of the current work is to the encapsulation of [email protected] biocomposite in calcium alginate biobeads as a new eco-friendly adsorbent for OG dye adsorption from aqueous media. The engineered biobeads were characterized by SEM, EDX and FT-IR analyses. Batch testts were carried out for Orange G molecules removal experiments using the prepared biobeads. The effect of contact time, adsorbent doses, pH, initial OG dye concentration, and the co-interfernig ions, kinetics, isotherm studies were evaluated.