Flooding occurs when water is in excess and can no longer be evacuated normally. The nature of the soil has been identified as one of the major causes of flooding, hence this study aimed is to show the influence of the physico-chemical properties of the soil on the recurrence of flooding in the Mbo plain. Four soil profiles were carried out on the alluviums according to the altitudes. These profiles were described and undisturbed soil samples were taken. Then, measurements of the infiltration rate of water in the soil by the Porchet method were carried out in sixteen sites. Finally, soil samples taken by auger and core sampling were studied in the laboratory. Physico-chemical parameters such as grain size, porosity, moisture, pH, compactness and organic matter were determined. Infiltration tests carried out in situ using the Porchet method revealed a hydraulic conductivity between 10−5 and 10−7 m/s, characteristic of a semi-permeable soil. This low value of permeability results from the morpho-structural arrangement and the chemical composition of the soils of the plain. These soils are hydromorphic, which means that they are constantly flooded and temporarily waterlogged. They are more or less sandy-clay on the surface, and very clayey at depth, generally from 25 cm. The very clayey soils at the base considerably slow down infiltration and act as a real barrier layer that prevents water from infiltrating, resulting to intense runoff. These soils are very porous and compact with a fairly high water content of up to 71%. This work allows us to conclude on the role of intrinsic soil properties on the genesis of floods in lowland areas. As in many plains in Africa and in the world, the nature of the soil in the Mbo plain is a natural predisposing factor to flood risks. The methods used can be applied in areas with the same characteristics as the Mbo Plain.