Descriptive Analysis of the Socio-demographic and Worked-related Characteristics
A total of 4906 paediatricians were invited to participate in the study, and valid data were collected from 4198 of the paediatricians (85.6%). Table 2 provides the descriptive statistics for the individual variables analysed in this study. The age of the respondents varied between 20 and 74 years old, and approximately 85% of the respondents were younger than age 50 years of age. A majority of the participants were female (70.1%), and the majority of paediatricians in China are female. In terms of education, most of the respondents had a university degree or above (94.7%), and most held a bachelor’s degree. A majority of the participants were married at the time of the study (88.7%).
With respect to practice setting , a majority of the participants worked in a government general hospital (71%), and smaller percentages worked in a children’s hospital (8.1%) or other settings (1.7%). A considerable majority of the respondents worked in a secondary (40.5%) or tertiary (55.8%) practice setting. Of the respondents, 29.3% were junior doctors, 30.6% were middle doctors, and 40.0% were senior doctors. Over half of the participants reported working for over 10 years (54.2%). Most of the respondents reported being responsible for 5-15 hospital beds (68.5%) and they were most likely to have 1day of rest each week(42.6%). Monthly salary <10000 yuan was reported by 82.5% of the respondents.
Common method bias analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
We used controlling for effects of an unmeasured latent methods factor to verify whether there was a common method bias. The single factor model has a poor fit, and the four-factor model has a good fit(Table 3). After adding the common method factor to the four-factor model, the fitting index of model was not improved a high degree. The RMSEA and SRMR reduction values was not more than 0.05(Table 3), and the CFI and TLI increased values was not more than 0.1(Table 3), which indicates the fitting date of model with the method factor no significant improvement was made, indicating that although common method bias may exist, it has less impact on the study .
The Status Quo of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among Paediatricians
The mean score for occupational identity was 28.52 and ranged from 10 to 50 (SD=8.516) (Table 4). The ANOVA revealed that with the exception of marital status, all the socio-demographic and work-related characteristics were tested to be significantly associated with occupational identity (Table 4 & Table 5).
In the terms of job satisfaction, the distribution of the pediatricians’ responses to the 20 5-point indicators within the 4 dimensions is shown in Table 4 and Table 5. The mean total score for general job satisfaction was 61.15 ranging from 20 to 100 (SD=12.252) (Table 4). In addition, the mean score for intrinsic job satisfaction was 38.39 (ranged from 12 to 60), while the mean score for extrinsic job satisfaction was 16.34 (ranged from 6 to 30).The results of the ANOVAs revealed that age, gender, region, grade of practice setting, professional title, years in practice, workload, rest day, monthly income were significantly associated with general job satisfaction (Table 4 & Table 5).
The mean total score for turnover intention was 11.35 ranging from 4 to 20 (SD=3.289) (Table 4). The research results also indicated that there were significant differences among the respondents in terms of turnover intention based on age, education, marital status, region, type and grade of practice setting, professional title, years in practise, workload, rest days, and monthly income (Table 4 & Table 5).
Pearson Correlation Analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Correlation analysis was conducted on the occupational identity, job satisfaction and turnover intention among Chinese pediatricians (Table 6). The study validated that the level of occupational identity was positively correlated with the respondents’ scores on general job satisfaction as well as intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction (r1=0.702, p<0.01; r2=0.704, p<0.01; r3=0.564, p<0.01). The study validated that the level of turnover intention was negatively correlated with the respondents’ scores on occupational identity, general job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction (r1=-0.601, p<0.01; r2=-0.605, p<0.01; r3=-0.563, p<0.01; r4=-0.557, p<0.01).
Mediating effect analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
We used bootstrap method to analysis mediating effect, which showed that intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction will mediate relationships between occupational identity and turnover intention. The direct effect means X→Y path regression, and the indirect effect meansX/M→Y path regression.The total effect is sum of the direct effect and the indirect effect and relative mediating effect is the proportion of the indirect effect in the total effect.So the total indirect effect is 0.09 and the total effect is 0.223. The mediating effect analysis found that occupational identity generates turnover intention through four paths: First, occupational identity directly affects turnover intention, and the direct effect is -0.133 (-0.120，-0.145 ) (Fig 2). Second, occupational identity indirectly affects turnover intention through intrinsic job satisfaction. The indirect effect is -0.028 (-0.017，-0.039) and the ratio of mediating effect is 12.56% (Table 7). Third, occupational identity indirectly affects turnover intention through extrinsic job satisfaction. The indirect effect is -0.015 (-0.011，-0.019) and the ratio of mediating effect is 6.73% (Table 7). Forth, occupational identity indirectly affects turnover intention through intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction. The indirect effect is -0.047 (-0.053, -0.0400) and the ratio of mediating effect is 21.08% (Table 7).