Cultural heritage are precious resources that showed the past human legacy, depicts present and future way of life as well as cultural values of a society, and it enhances solidarity and social integration of communities. However, due to natural catastrophes and anthropogenic factors, the sustainability of cultural heritage is questionable and requires scientific investigations to uncover the major problems affecting the continual of heritage attractions so that the panacea for this can be devised. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the practices and challenges of cultural heritage conservations in North Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia. Methodologically, the research employed a mixed research approach and cross-sectional descriptive and explanatory research design. While systematic random sampling technique is applied to select samples from local communities, purposive sampling was designed to choose interviewees. The target population of the study encompasses local communities, government authorities, and culture and tourism office experts of North Shoa Zone and respective districts. The actual and valid sample size of the study is 208. The findings of the study revealed that the cultural heritages are not safeguarded from damaging activities indicating a poor status of conservation. The major conclusion sketched from the study is the principal factors affecting heritage conservation are lack of proper management, monitoring and evaluation, lack of funds and stakeholder involvement, urbanization, settlement programs and agricultural practice, poor government concern and professional commitment, poor attitude towards cultural heritage and lack of community concern, vandalism and illicit trafficking, low promotions of cultural heritage, and natural catastrophes like invasive intervention, climate change (humidity and frost, excessive rainfall and flood, heat from the sun). The study implied that the sustainability of cultural heritage is endanger unless conservation practice is supported by conservation guidelines, heritage site management plans and research outputs, stakeholders’ integration, and community involvement. Most importantly, the study recommends the integration of heritage conservation and sustainable development, and the promotion of conservation is a way of achieving economic and social sustainability.