Ethics approval and consent to participate
As educational assessment data are analysed completely anonymously and written informed consent was achieved for Quality Assurance analysis from participating institutions, ethical approvals are not required.
Consent for publication
All co-authors approved the current version of the paper being submitted to BMC Medical Education
Availability of data and material
All data and materials were retrieved, stored and suggested for analysis by each co-author of the participating Universities
Dr. Thomas Kropmans, MSc PhD is a senior lecturer in Medical Informatics & Education at the College of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences of the National University of Ireland Galway, and co-founder of Qpercom, a spin off of the School of Medicine. He coordinated the cross-institutional research, wrote various drafts of the paper and coordinated the final drafts. Prior to the start of the research, he performed the literature search & review and designed the flow chart for cross-institutional comparison based on the analysis done for each participating institution. He is employed by the National University of Ireland, Galway and is not paid for his activities within Qpercom.
The research contribution of Stephen Hynes work was funded through the utilisation of an Innovation Voucher from Enterprise Ireland and a research grant of the Department of Medical Informatics and Medical Education of the National University of Ireland, Galway.
Dr. Eirik Søfteland MD, PhD, Professor in Anaesthesiology, University of Bergen, Norway and team retrieved, stored and analysed the Norway data and organised internal approval for the mutual paper and suggested Bergen’s OSCE for further analysis. Eirik participated during various initial drafts and critically appraised and adjusted the final draft.
Drs Anneke Wijnalda, Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and team retrieved, stored and analysed the Dutch veterinary medicine data, arranged internal approval for the mutual paper and suggested the LDH OSCE for further analysis. Anneke wrote substantial parts of the initial drafts and critically appraised and adjusted the final draft.
Dr Marie Thoresen, MD, specialist in Internal Medicine and Respiratory Diseases, MMSc Medical Education, Harvard Medical School. Center of Assessment in Medical Education (CAME), Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and team retrieved, stored and analysed the Norway NTNU data, arranged internal approval for the mutual paper and suggested their OSCE for further analysis. Marie critically appraised various draft and reviewed the final draft.
Dr Magnus Hultin, PhD, the program director of the Medical Program Umeå University. Chair of the Swedish Proficiency test for Medical Doctors educated outside EU and EEA. Associate professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Senior Lecturer at Umeå University Hospital. Magnus was awarded as an Excellent teacher at Umeå University 2018 and selected the Swedish data, arranged internal approval for the mutual paper, adjusted previous and reviewed the final draft.
Dr Rosemary Geoghegan, PhD National University of Ireland Galway, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Medicine. Vice Dean for Teaching Learning and Assessment and leads the Teaching, Learning and Assessment unit, in collaboration with central university, developing and delivering the National, University and College Strategic Plan for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. Rosemary and team organised, retrieved, stored and analysed the Galway Ireland year 4 data and suggested the Advanced Clinical Assessment OSCE for further analysis. Rosemary discussed various QA approaches, arranged internal approval for the mutual paper and due course of drafting the paper implemented the 68% CI interval in the NUIG analysis.
Ms Angela Marie Kubacki, Associate Dean for Admissions and Senior Lecturer in Clinical Communication at St George’s, University of London, UK and team retrieved, stored and analysed the London data and suggested St George’s OSCE for further analysis. Angela organised internal approval and critically appraised and adjusted the final draft.
Nick Stassens, KU Leuven, educational expert and OSCE coordinator at the Skills Center of the Faculty of Medicine. Nick and team retrieved, stored and analysed the Belgian data, organised internal approval for the mutual paper and suggested the Leuven OSCE for further analysis. Nick participated during various drafts, suggested the lay-out of Table 2 to avoid competitional comparison and critically appraised and adjusted the final draft.
Dr Suzanne McCarthy, PhD is a lecturer in clinical pharmacy practice at the School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, pilotted Qpercom Observe in 2017 and as such retrieved, stored and analysed the Cork data. She organised approval for participation and critically appraised the final draft.
Stephen Hynes BSc in Medicine, research student (employed by the university), was paid through an innovation voucher of Enterprise Ireland of the Domian of Medical Informatics & Medical Education of the School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway and performed additional analysis and adjusted various first drafts of the paper.
The authors wish to acknowledge the approval and written informed consent provided by each participating university. We therefore highly appreciate the effort of all co-authors and their Faculty and Head of School in having gone that extra mile.