In the current cross-sectional study, we observed a positive association between potato consumption and serum level of TG and HDL among elderly men. Furthermore, other starchy vegetable consumption was inversely associated with serum level of SGPT among elderly men.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study designed to determine the association between CVD risk factors and potato and other starchy vegetable consumption in elderly men. We observed no evidence that potato consumption was associated with the risk of major CVD events or mortality from CVD.
Our findings illustrated positive association with potato consumption and serum level of TG. Animal studies on rats reported reduced cholesterol and TG levels with potato diet for 3weeks (27, 28). Similarly, epidemiological studies demonstrated decline in serum TG level with potato consumption (29). In the same way, our study showed the positive association of potato consumption with serum TG level.
A cross-sectional study among 4774 men and women subjects has been found a positive significant association between potato intake and insulin resistance (IR), diabetes type 2 and FBS serum level. Additionally, after adjustment to age, sex, physical activity, and dietary intake the association between FBS and diabetes type 2 with potato intake remained significant while between IR and potato intake disappeared (21). In this study, we failed to identify the relationship between potato consumption and diabetes type 2 and FBS, because the subjects we studied were only elderly men while their subjects were in both gender and the sample size for our study is smaller. Moreover comparatively our study has more adjusted viable such as age, sex, SES, BMI, fat intake, smoking, total dietary fiber intake, supplements consumption, and medication. Another cross-sectional study among 357 elderly men found a positive association between DIL (Dietary Insulin Load) and serum level of FBS. The positive significant association observed between high DIL with FBS serum levels after adjustment to energy intake, marital status, socioeconomic status, smoking, disease status, anti-diabetic drugs, thyroid drugs, and heart disease drugs (30). Mentioned studies observed a positive association between DIL and FBS. It means that the long-term consumption of high insulin index foods caused β cell dysfunction and this situation subsequently caused IR and increased serum level of glucose (31).
This study showed a positive association of potato consumption with decrease serum level of HDL and increase serum level of TG, but we could not find an association with other lipid profiles.
We observed noticeable increase in the mean of total cholesterol in highest versus lowest tertile of potato consumption. But based on our result there was high TC in participants who had a higher consumption of potato rather than low consumption of potato. Although this increase in cholesterol has no clinical significance.
However, we observed lower LDL-C serum level in participants who consumed more other starchy vegetable while higher LDL-C serum level observed in subjects who consumed higher potato. In our study, there were few subjects with TC more than 200 and a high level of LDL-C for that’s why we weren’t able to consider the odds ratio of TC and LDL-C related to potato consumption. We found this association according to mean. The high plasma of HDL-C play a protective role for myocardial infarction and reduce coronary heart disease (32–34). The result of a cross-sectional study with 2045 among different race in both gender depicts the consumption of fried potatoes was over 75% across groups and was associated with higher odds dyslipidemia (high non-HDL cholesterol). All unhealthy foods measured were consumed more often by males as compared to females (35). Another cross-sectional study (n = 12514) among men and women observed a positive association between potato consumption and low HDL-C level (36). Phosphorus content of other starchy vegetables has other favorable properties, as it slows digestion and absorption and thus lowers blood lipid level. Its fiber content also lowers blood cholesterol level (37, 38).
Our result observed a high level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme in subjects who had higher potato consumption than those participants who consumed lesser potato it seems that higher potato consumption can cause to leads higher ALP enzyme level. While lower ALP enzyme level observed among subjects who had higher other starchy vegetable consumption.
We found an inverse association between other starchy vegetable consumption and serum level of SGPT.
Moreover, a case-control study among 229 Japanese adults (men and women) with T2DM, who were not taking anti-diabetic medication showed positive correlation of total carbohydrate intake with HbA1c. However, our study with healthy individuals has demonstrated the positive association between other starchy vegetable consumption and higher serum insulin level (39).
This is the first study which examined the association between other starchy vegetables and potato consumption and CVD risk factors among elderly individuals. Limited research is available on the association between other starchy vegetable and potatoes consumption and cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, not all published studies have comprehensively taken into account different cardiovascular risk factors. However, in the present study, glycemic parameters, lipid profile and also inflammatory biomarkers were investigated in order to provide better insight into the association with CVD risk factors. Additionally, elderly individuals are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and a little information is available about dietary patterns and indices in the elderly, therefore examining the association between other starchy vegetables, carbohydrate and cardiovascular risk factors is important.
The current study has several limitations that should be addressed in the interpretation of the findings. First, this study was designed as a cross-sectional study which it prevents to say causation of outcome and exposure and it is nuclear that maybe participants consumed potato for reducing CVD outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to study the probable relationship in future prospective studies. It should be noted that the remaining effects of the unknown confounders should be considered in future studies. Another limitation of the study was that the study was conducted on elderly men, although women and men may have different dietary patterns.