The rotary table is the key component in the optimal design of roadheaders. In this study, a simulation model of the cutting part and a rotary table is established in SolidWorks, and stress analysis and strength evaluation of the structure of the rotary table are performed. To this end, finite element analysis is performed on the basis of the dynamic theory of a coupled multibody system comprising rigid and flexible bodies. Considering actual working conditions, the load file of the cutting head is calculated based on the development of the “Roadheader Machine load Calculation Program”, and the stress and strain cloud map of the cutting head running to the bottom left, middle end, and right end of the rotary table is obtained through Adams simulation. Then, the 6-order modal analysis is carried out, and the S-N curve of the turntable is finally established. In addition, the fatigue life reliability of the turntable is analyzed using the AWE fatigue module. The results show that, provided reliable working conditions, the EBZ160 type roadheader machine during the normal service life shows no risk of fatigue failure under normal working load.