Study setting and design:
Community based crossectional study was conducted Nov. 2015 to Dec. 2015 on adult population with age 18 and residing in Nekemte town. The required sample size of the study (711) was determined using single finite population proportion formula by considering: prevalence of hypertension 30% from the study done in Addis Ababa and 10% possible non response rate and design effect 2.
The study participants were identified by multistage sampling technique.
Dependent variable: Prevalence of hypertension
Independent variable: Age, Sex, Ethnicity, marital status, educational status, family Income, accessibility of Screening program, alcohol consumption, smoking, chewing khat, diet, physical exercise and psychological stress.
Data collection procedure:
Data were obtained on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors including, physical activity, and physical measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, as well as blood pressure. Data was collected by 5 health extension workers supervised by experienced BSc nurses. One day training was given on how to measure BP, weight, height and waist circumference by the investigator and two supervisors. Weight and height was measured with participants standing without shoes position and height was recorded to the nearest 0.5 cm, and weight was measured by Digital weight scale and recorded to the nearest 100 g. BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms over height in meters squared [weight (kg)/ (height (m)) 2]. Waist circumference was measured at the level the mid-way between the level of iliac crest and lowest margin rib margin using a non-elastic tape measure. Blood pressure was measured in a sitting position with supported back using a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope after the participants rested for at least 5 minutes and the participants had no coffee drinking, cigarette smoking and strenuous exercise with an hour of BP measurement with standard procedure with 2-3 cm above antecubital fossa for placement of stereoscope and the bladder encircled at least 2/3 rd. the arm. The accuracy of the mercury sphygmomanometers was seen by checking that the upper curve of the meniscus of the mercury column is at 0 mm Hg, that the column was free of dirt, and that it rose and fell freely during cuff inflation and deflation. The measurement was done in both arms at sitting position with back supported and the larger one was taken. Two consecutive measurements of blood pressure were taken 2 minutes apart from all study participants. The average of the two measurements was used for analysis (20, 21).
Data processing and analysis:
Data was cleaned and entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS Windows Version 20. Descriptive analysis was done using numbers and percentages. Presence of statistical association between dependent and independent variables was assessed. Multiple Logistic regression analysis was done to assess independent risk factors for hypertension.