Previous studies on estimated associations between low carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are inconsistent. We aim to assess the association between LCD score and MetS in a Chinese population.
A multi-stage random sampling method was applied and a total of 1993 participants aged more than 18 years from a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province were accessed. Dietary intake was evaluated using a consecutive 3-d, 24-h dietary recall combined with the condiments weighing method.LCD scores, including usual, animal-based, and plant-based LCD scores, were calculated based on energy, carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake by sex.
In multivariate regression analyses adjusted for age, total energy intake and other potential confounders, the usual LCD score significantly increased risk of MetS in men [the highest quartile vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio (OR): 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–2.87, Pfor trend < 0.05]. Furthermore, a significant trend was found between plant-based LCD score and the MetS in men (Pfor trend < 0.05). Among the components of the MetS, higher usual LCD score increased the risk of central obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in men, meanwhile animal-based LCD score was positively associated with the risk of central obesity, and plant-based LCD score was positively associated with the risk of hyperglycemia in men.
Our results reveal that low carbohydrate and excessive fat diet (even monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids), may increase the risk of MetS and Chinese male is more sensitive to the transition of dietary composition from high carbohydrate to high fat than Chinese female. Further studies are warranted.