Table 2 shows the sociodemographic characteristics of people from both groups (normal and overweight/obese). The mean age of the group with overweight/obesity was greater than the group with normal weight, 45.9 (sd 15 years). Distribution by sex is similar for both groups, being women the ones who predominate in the sample. With respect to formal education, maximum schooling level for people with normal weight was junior high school, while for the group with overweight/obesity, it was elementary level. Distribution by state was similar for both groups, as well as occupation. The Seguro Popular (Popular Insurance) was reported as the main provider of health services, followed by IMSS ( Mexican Institute for Social Security).
Table 3 presents a comparison of health variables, inherited family background and some lifestyles. Prevalence of DM2 and AHT was double in people with overweight/obesity, compared to those with normal weight. The report on physical activity and time spent in front of a screen was similar for both groups.
Dietary patterns were determined for both of the studied groups (normal weight and overweight/obesity). The loading factor and assigned name are presented in Table 4. A positive loading factor indicates a positive association with the factor. The highest load in a food group is the greatest contribution of the group to a specific factor.
Patterns in the group with normal weight explain 24% of the variance in the consumption of 27 food groups. Pattern 1, Prudent, was characterized by vegetable consumption (0.45), fruits (0.35), corn derivatives (0.30), low fat dairy products (0.33), oils (0.30) and water (0.30). Pattern 2, Western, is characterized by sweet bread (0.41), Mexican dishes with fat (0.35), potato (0.33), egg (0.37), candy (0.32) and water (0.32). Pattern 3, Varied, includes sweet cereals (0.57), Mexican dishes without fat (0.30), processed meats (0.30) and snacks (0.60).
Patterns in the second group (overweight/obesity) explain 23% of the variance in consumption of the 27 food groups. Pattern 1 was characterized as Prudent. It included fruit consumption (0.48), vegetables (0.49), potato (0.30) and plain water (0.30). Pattern 2 was defined as Western and was characterized by consumption of sweet bread and cookies (0.40), bread and flours (0.41), fried Mexican dishes (0.30), red meats and chicken (0.31), egg (0.36) and fats (0.40). Pattern 3 was defined as Varied and was composed of fats (0.30), snacks (0.30), plain water (0.55) and alcoholic beverages (0.61).
When analyzing composition with respect to kilocalories and macronutrients in the different patterns, in participants with normal weight (Table 4), the Prudent pattern has a distribution that is closer to the WHO’s recommendations.22 Although it is high in caloric consumption, the greatest contribution comes from fruits and vegetables; besides, it has a high fiber content. The Western and Varied patterns have a great caloric contribution coming from lipids and a low fiber consumption. The Prudent pattern exists with a high contribution of carbohydrates coming from fruits and vegetables. The Western pattern has a high caloric consumption and great contribution of lipids from consumption of bread, flours, Mexican dishes with fat. The Varied pattern reported a high consumption of sugary beverages, contributing 90% of calories.
In carrying out the regression analysis, according to the characteristics of people with normal weight, with dietary patterns by state, we found that the Prudent diet pattern was more frequent in residents of Yucatan (p < 0.001) and Morelos (0.001), while people living in Hidalgo were less likely to follow this pattern (< 0.001). People who followed the Varied pattern more closely were the ones in the last quartile, who were married or living in common law marriage and who spent 2 to 4 hours in front of a screen. On the other hand, those who followed this pattern less closely were men, people in the first quartile, those who had never been married and those who spent 0 to 2 hours in front of a screen.
The association between dietary patterns and the variables of the overweight/obesity group showed that those who followed the Prudent pattern more closely were in the tertile with youngest age (0.001), that is, young people and those living in the state of Yucatan (0.001). Those who followed the pattern least closely were people in the highest tertile (0.001), residents of Hidalgo and Jalisco (0.001). For the Western pattern, people in Jalisco followed the pattern more closely (0.001); on the other hand, residents of Morelos followed it least closely (0.001). Finally for the Varied pattern, those who followed it most closely were women (0.01), people in the highest quartile (0.05), residents of Hidalgo (0.05) and those with elementary level education, while people who followed it least closely were those in the lowest quartile (0.05), residing in Yucatan.