The toxicological examination established the diagnosis by gas chromatography; carbofuran was detected in all of the cases.
The pathological findings for each case are presented separately in Table 1, and we described below the most relevant lesions for carbofuran intoxication along with necropsy and histology pictures.
The external examination of the body revealed dried saliva around the oral cavity and a pink color around the mouth (Fig. 1.-B), and on some parts of the body, usually on the lateral parts were the animal could have touch his fur with the mouth (Fig. 1.-C). At four dogs we found epistaxis.
At eye level we noticed multifocal 3-rd eyelid haemorrhages, associated with diffuse uveal congestion and hyphema (unilateral or bilateral). (Fig. 1.-D, E)
At three dogs subcutaneous and muscular haemorrhages were present.
Generally the gastric content was composed of an unknown pink colored foreign substance mixed with bread or meat, with chicken parts, even feathers. In the pharynx and esophagus pink coloration of the mucosa was noticed. The small intestine and its content were colored in pink too. Also micro haemorrhages of the colon were found.
Histology revealed that the stomach mucosa had desquamated to catarrhal inflammatory lesions, mainly involving the superficial epithelium, and congestion in the deep part of lamina propria and sub mucosa.
One dog presented a diffuse, acute, minimal hepatic congestion and another one had a diffuse splenic congestion.
Necropsy revealed in the cardiovascular level haemorrhagic pericardial content, and in some case subendocardial congestions (Fig. 2.-A) and haemorrhages.
In the myocardium diffuse sub endocardia haemorrhages and myocardial congestions (Fig. 2.-B) and haemorrhage were found. In the myocardium of an individual, the myocardial fibers were replaced by fibrous tissue, with some atrophied myofibers sequestrated in the scar tissue, which could be the consequence of a chronic myocardial infarct.
In the upper respiratory tract the larynx and trachea had diffuse congestion and the lung had acute, severe, diffuse, bilateral pulmonary congestion and edema (Fig. 3. –A), with multifocal petechial and ecchymosis present in the majority of the cases.
In the lung, severe vascular changes were detected, i.e. septal congestion (Fig. 3.-C) associated with the presence of numerous siderocytes, and diffuse edema in the lung airways (Fig. 3.-B).
In the brain the predominant feature was the meningeal and bilateral cerebral acute congestion (Fig. 4.-A) with some multifocal petechial haemorrhage.
From a histologic pathological point of view in the brain, the main changes detected were represented by cerebral congestion and gliosis, including the presence of glial nodules and discrete vascular cuffing (margination) mainly with lymphocytes and glial cells. Additionally, some neurons presented in the cytoplasm a dark brown material (most likely lipofuscin). The lepto-meningeal blood vessels underwent congestion associated with local edema (Fig. 4.-B).
Bilateral, diffuse renal congestion accompanied by tubular degeneration and necrosis was recorded in all cases.
Regarding the kidney, the lesions occurred were represented by corticomedulary congestion (Fig. 4.-C), vacuolar degeneration of the epithelium from the cortical tubules of the nephrons (Fig. 4.-D), congestion of the glomerular tuft of the renal corpuscles associated with the presence of a proteinaceous (hyaline) material in the urinary space, and Bowman’s capsule thickening.