This theoretical model-based study is aimed to answer an applied but system-related question, relevant to multiple current studies and general audience: Is it better for human health and the environment to consume extra portion of food or throw it in the garbage (for further treatment)? The question has deep conceptual roots and requires a holistic approach to assessing a few complex systems: food production, food waste treatment and medical treatment activities. According to estimations, there are around 3.05-7.2 Mtonnes of avoidable food waste generated by German consumers at the household level. Simultaneously, high levels of food overconsumption are also observed at the household level. Thus, more than half of all Germans are overweight and obese and a high share of them require additional medical treatment resources. The study compared the environmental impact of treating potentially avoidable food waste with current waste management system in Germany to the hypothetical scenario of consuming such amount of food by the existing population. The results indicated that current waste management system is more beneficial for the environment than consuming excessive food by German population and requesting related medical services in categories of global warming potential (0.128 versus 0.6-2.4 Mtonnes CO 2 eq.), energy demand (-21 versus 16-66 PJ) and water footprint (-1607 versus 13.2-53 million m 3).However, land use impact allocated to other healthcare due to food consumed by humans is 13-80% lower than current waste treatment. Another danger of consuming excessive food relates to accumulated risks and further increased demand for health services. Following years would worsen the situation, making a choice for “food waste avoided” diet unfeasible. The results received do not allow for a simple Sergiy Smetana 1 et al. answer on selecting more sustainable strategies of dealing with an excessive amount of food in every specific case. However, they allow to indicate preferable conditions for dealing with excessive food in model conditions, which account for health status of household members or group of people (population), nutrient density and amount of food, and time frame. Time factor is one of the key factors defining preferences for food-wasting or consumption.